scientific research on bodily movements (to be completed)

Barrier, Guy

Cosnier, J. (1977) Communication non verbale et language, Psychologie médicale, 19 pp.2033-2049

MehrabianA.Wiener, M. Decoding of inconsistent communications, Journal of personality and Social Psychology (1967), Vol 6,No.1,109-114

Winkin,Y (1996). Bidwhistell R., Penser la communication autrement, Recherches en Communication, No.5, pp 211-221.


Cassel, J / McNeill, D / McCullough, K.E. (1998). Speech gestures mismatches: evidence for one underlying representation of linguistic and non linguistic information, Pragmatics & Cognition, 6:2, pp.1-25

Caso, L / Marricchiolo, F / Bonaiuto, M / Vrij, A / Mann. S, (2006) The inpact of deception and suspicion on different hand movements, Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 30(1),pp.1-19

Marricchiolo,F. / Gnisci, A. / Bonaiuto, M / Ficca, V. (2009). Effects of different types of hand gestures in persuative speech on receivers’ evaluations. Language and cognitive process, 24 (2), pp.239-266.

Tellier,M / Stam,G. (2010) Découvrir le pouvoir de ses mains: La gestuelle de futurs enseignants de langue, Spécificités et diversité des interactions didactiques: disciplines, finalités, contextes, Lyon, France.

Miyamoto,Y / Nisbett, R.E / Masuda,T.(2006) Holistic Versus Analytic Perceptual Affordances, Culture and Physical Environment, 17,2, Science, 17, 113 -119

Anger / Elfenbein,H / Ambady,N. (2002) On the Universality and Cultural Specificity of Emotion Recognition: A Meta-Analysis, American Psychological Association, Inc, Vol.128,No:2, pp.209-235.

Mrowa-Hopkins,C / Strambi,A. La dimension émotionnelle de la communication en situation interculturelle: L’expression non verbale de la colère chez des locuteurs anglo-australiens, français et italiens. Les Cahiers de l’Actuelle, No 3, 2008, pp: 89 – 110.

Gosselin,P. Le décodage de l’expression faciale des émotions au cours de l’enfance, Canadian Psychology (2005), 46:3, pp: 126 – 138

Specifics and items:

Bar,M / Neta,N / Linz,H Very First Impressions, Emotion (2006), Vol.6 No:2, pp:269-278.

Nummenmaa,L / Calvo, M.G. (2009) Emotional Scene Content Drives the Saccade Generation System Reflexively, Journal of experimental Psychology, Vol.35, No:2, pp:305-323.

Hunt, A.R. Cooper, R.M. Hungr, C.Kingstone, (2007) The effect of emotional faces on eye movements and attention, Visual cognition, 15, 5 513-531.

S.Leal and A.Vrij (2008) Blinking during and after lying, Nonverbal Behavior 32: 187-194.

Elfenbein,H.A. / Mandal, K.M. / Ambady,N. / Harikuza,K. / Surender,K.C. (2004) Hemifacial differences in the in-group advantage in emotion recognition, cognition and emotion, 18, 5, pp: 613-629.

Ekman, P. / Davidson, R.J. / Friesen, W.V. (1990) The Duchenne Smile: Emotional Expression and Brain Physiology II, Vol.58, No:2, pp: 342-353.


Lhotellier, A. and St.Arnaud, Y. (1994) Pour une démarche praxéologique, Nouvelles pratiques sociales, Vol.7,No:2, pp:93 – 109.

Recognition of authenticity:

Sporer,S / Schwandt,B. (2007) Moderators of nonverbal indicators of deception, A meta-analytical Synthesis, Vol 13, No 1, pp: 1-34.

De Paulo, B.M. Lindsay, J.J. Malone, B.E.Muhlenbruck, Charlton. K. Cooper.H, (2003), Cues to Deception, Psychological Bulletin, Vol 129, No:1, pp: 74 -118.

Bond, C.F / Uysal,A.  On Lie detection “Wizards (2007), Law and Human Behavior, Vol 31, No:1 pp: 109-116.

Warren,G. / Schertler,E / Bull, P. (2009) Detecting Deception from Emotional and Unemotional Cues in Nonverbal Behavior 33:59 69

The list under shows all small details in non-verbal language observed by its author(s)

Bateson Gregory, Pour une Ecologie de l’esprit, Coll Seuil, Paris, 2 tomes, 1977.  From the school of Palo Alto, the first to really introduce a systematical dimension in a non-verbal communication-system. He seems to be the first in observing crossed legs are not always negative. He introduces the ‘double-bind’ theory (contradiction in verbal and non-verbal language).

Bekdache K : L’organisation verbo-viscero-motrice au cours de la commnunication verbale selon la structure spatiale ou poxémique , Thesis , 3rd cycle , Lyon 2. He shows that we hardly make gestures when we phone…  Gestures -must- have another meaning rather than illustrating our thoughts…

Birdwhistell Ray: Kinesics and context : essays on body motion communication, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1970. 
Ray Birdwhistell excells in analyses of micro-mouvements in communication , and calls them kinesie. First work appears in 1950.

Borod J.C : ” Interhemispheric and intrahemispheric control of emotion : a focus on unilateral brain damage ” , Journal of Consulting and Clinical psychology 60, 1992. 
He shows how much emotions do not interfere with two sides of the face. Inconscient control is responsible for the stressed right-half of the face.

Buser Pierre : Cerveau de soi, cerveau de l’autre, Ed Odile Jacob, 1998, 432 pages. (P.291) Pierre Buser examines the emotional expression of the face in general . He is overclear in his research that emotional expression is seen on the left half of the face (the right hemisphere) rather than the right half of the face.

Calbris Genevieve : L’expression gestuelle de la pensee d’un homme politique. Genevieve Calbris, CNRS Editions, 2003, 205 pages. Through study and observing the non verbal langage of Lionel Jospin, she shows that gestures are not illustrating the word, and even less the extression of thoughts. For her, gesture creates thoughts to evolve and comes even before the formation of new ideas. Her work is interesting for it is serious and systematical. Sorry to say: in synergology we hesitate to generalize. In this particular area, public figures are often placed in front of journalists outspread in a room (not taken in consideration): often a systematical dimension in non-verbal communication. The cerebral hemispheres in gesture is not evocated since in the situation of stress (in his case) plays an important role…

Chateau (de) Peter shows in 1983 that left-handed mothers carry their baby also on their left arm. /Cf in Vauclair Jacques Cerveau et Psycho,4, 2004, pp 24-25.

Crigley Hugo D , Dolan Raymond et Christophe .J : ” neural activity relating to generation and representation of galvanic skin conductance responses : a functional magnetic resonance imaging study”, Journal of neuroscience 20, 2000, pp.3030-3040.
They show that the cortex somato sensoriels de l’insula et de SII are involved in producing microdemangeaisons. Microdemangeaisons are not ‘tics’. Synergology uses this theory the past 20 years already.

Darwin Charles : The expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals . Ed John Murray, Londres, 1872 . A classic! The only one in his era (19th century) to explain that emotions activate the same zones in the brain and trigger the same reactions, wherever on the planet they are observed.

Cacioppo J.T, Petty R .E, Tassinary L.G : Social psychophysiology : A new look. Advances inExperimental Social Psychology, 22, pp 39-91. These authors show how good communicators are contagious, and are able to transmit their emotions to even silent and/or introvert persons.

Cook M et Smith J.M.C : The role of gaze in impression formation, British Society, Clinical psychology, 14, 1975 pp.19-25. In ten seconds only, even while we think we fix our eyes in the eyes of the other, our eyes ‘see’ about twenty points on the face of the other…

Coudon Dr Olivier : Les rythmes du corps, Edition du Nil, 1997, 260 pages. Il explique que les enfants possedent un mecanisme de regulation cardiaque , qu’il mettent en ouvre grace a des mouvements comme le balancement de jambe par exemple. Les enfants balancent souvent leurs jambes plus inconsciemment du monde pour se calmer, etre moins anxieux et davantage a l’ecoute . Ils regulent alors ce que les specialistes ce que les specialistes appellent les rythmes ultradiens de haute frequence.

Damasio Antonio.R : L’erreur de Descartes, Ed Odile Jacod, 1995, 396 p. Antonio Damasio shows how simulated emotions do not interfere with the two sides of the face, in particularly because of a control in the left hemisphere stays in place, while spontaneous emotions trigger both halfs of the face to open-up together. (We think he persists in his work too much on the simulation-aspect, since he does not see it is inconscient control rather than conscient simulation responsible for this dissymetry.

Damasio Antonio, Gabowski Thomas J, Bechaa Antoine, Damasio Hanna, Ponto, Laura L.B, Parvisi Josf et Richard D : « Subcortical and cortical brain activity during the feeling of self generated emotions, Nature Neuroscience, 3, 2000,pp.1049-1056.  These reseachers show that changes on the skin come before the ‘sensation’ , also a ‘feeling’ called. This phenomenon is important when we want to understand where our microdémangeaisons come from…

Davidson Richard, Ekman Paul, Senulius S, Friesen W : Emotional Expression and brain physiology I : Approach /withdrawal and cerebral Asymetry », Journal of personality and Social psychology. 58, 1990 :
The authors show how we produce physiological changes in correspondental emotions when we adapt a given expression. VB: Smiling triggers a neurophisiological activity in the brain to feel good.

Dimberg : Ulf : Facial electromyography and emotional reactions. Psychophysiology, 27, 1990, pp. 481-494. When we face somebody, we inconsciously ‘marry’ the other by ‘reading’ the characteristics of the others’face in order to understand what the other ‘feels’. This empathic mechanism is completely inconscious. This hypothesis is discovered and proven by the swedish research Ulf Dimberg.  He placed sensors on the face of a person in front of another person, in order to measure the exact same emotions as noticed on the face of the person in front..  We ‘mirror’ facial muscular mime, even though invisible in normal circumstances.

Eibl Eibesfeldt Irenaüss : L’homme programmé, Trad, Flammarion, 1976 , 256 pages.  He discovered that humans, men and women, while exanging a first contact, highten their eyebrows in the first place. He proved that this was a universal inconscious reflex.

Ekman Paul, O’Sullivan M, Frank M.G , « A few Can Catch A liar”, Psychological Science, 10, 1999, pp. 263-266.   While observing voice and face, we are able to read lies. It is enough to look and listen to know… 1 % of the population however is capable to hide the lie, while we do not understand what is so particular about these persons…

Ekman et Friesen : Ekman P. ,  Friesen W. : Hand movements, Journal of Communication, 22, pp. 353-374.
Gestures, auto-concentrated on the body, allow us to draw the attention of our interlocutor. In synergology we call this ‘microfixations’.

Ekman, P. and Friesen, W. : “Detecting deception fom the body or face”, Journal of personality and Social Psychology , 29, pp. 288-298. Ekman and Friesen show how uncincere people bow their head systematically when confronted by others. In synergology we very much agree upon Paul Eckman’s analyses of the detection of the lie on the face. It is a pity he only focuses on the body and ignores the importance of the cerebral hemispheres and the dissemetrical differences in the face.

Ekman Paul and Friesen, W. “Nonverbal leakage and cues to deception”, Psychiatry , 32, 1969, pp. 88-105.  Ekman and Friesen show when words and gestures are in contradiction, we choose to believe the gestures rather than the words.

Exline R.V : Visual interaction : The glances of power and preference, in J Cole : Symposium of motivation, 1971, Lincoln, University of nebaska Press, PP. 163-206. If we look at ourselves 60% of the time, an autist will not give us more than 4% of a glimpse… Humans, opposite eachother, with interest in one-another, look eachother more often and longer.  The fact to be seen by the other gives a person the feeling to be appreciated.

Feyereisen Pierre: Le cerveau et la communication, Coll ” Psychologie d’aujourd’hui “, P.U.F, 1994, 213 pages.

Freedman N, et Steingart J : “Kinesic intenalization and language construction” in Spence DB : Psychoanalysis and contempory science, Vol IV, 1975, New York, University Press, pp. 355-403.

Frey, Siegfried, Hirsbrunner Hans-Peter, Florin Anne-Marie, Daw Walid, and Crawfod : ” Analyse intégrée du comportement non verbal et verbal dans le domaine de la Communication ” in La Communication non verbale de J Cosnier et A Brossard, Delachaux et Niestlé,1992, Neuchâtel , 244 pages.

Gardner Howard, Les intelligences multiples. Pour changer l’école : la prise en compte des différentes formes d’intelligence, Trad Retz 1996.

Hall Edward : La dimension cachée, Ed le Seuil, 1972.

Hattfield E, Costello J, Weisman MS, Denney C : “The impact of vocal Feedback on emotional experience and expression”, Journal of social behavior and personality, 10, 1995, 293-312.

Heilman K.M et Watson R.T : ” Arousal and emotions ” in F Boller et Grafman J : Handbook of neuropsychology , 1983 , Vol 3 pp; 403-417, Amsterdam, Elsevier.

Hess E.H, : ” Attitude and pupill size” Scientific Américan, 1965, 212, pp.46-54.

Johnson Mark,

Kimura D., : ” The neural basis of gesture “, In H. Whitaker et H.A Whitaker : Studies in neurolinguistics, 1976 , Vol 2 (pp. 145-156).

Kimura D et Humphrys C.A : “A comparison of left and right arm movement during speaking”, Neuropsychologia, 19, 1981, pp.807-812. 

Kraut E, Poe Donald : The deception judgement of Custom Inspectors and Laymen , Journal of personnality and social psychology, 39, 1980, pp 784-798.

Lakoff George & Johnson Mark : Les métaphores dans la vie quotidienne (Traduit de l’anglais par Michel de Fornel, en collaboration avec Jean-Jacques Lecercle)Les Éditions de Minuit (Propositions), 1985. Édition originale, The University of Chicago, 1980.

LeDoux Joseph : ” Emotional memory system in the brain “, Behavioral and brain research 58, 1993.

Mc Neill D : “So you think gestures are nonverbal ?” Psychological review, 92, 1986, pp. 350-371.

Manning John et Andrew Chamberlain    Jacques Vauclair, Cerveau et Psycho,4, 2004, pp 24-25.

Mehrabian Albert :Nonverbal communication, Chicago, Aldine-Atherton , 1972. 

Hubert Montagner, L’enfant et la communication, 1978, 418 pages (p.95) 

Montagner Hubert L’enfant et la communication, 1978, 418 pages.

Moscovici S , Plon M : Les situations : observations theoriques et experimentales, Bulletin de psychologie, 1966, 19 , pp ; 702-722

Morow L, Urtunski B, Kim Y, Boller F :“Arousal responses to emotional stimuli and laterality of lesion” , Neuropsychologia, 1981, 19, 65-71

Murphy S.T, Zajonc R.B : “Affect, cognition and awareness : Affecting priming with optimal and suboptimal stimulus exposures”. Journal of personality and Social psychology, 64, 723-739.

Rachael Jack, investigates the psychological underpinnings of social interaction, examining the influence of knowledge and concepts (i.e., culture) on visual and categorical perception, particularly the processing of social signals such as facial expressions of emotion.

Reich Wilhelm : Character analysis, New York , Orgone Institute Press, 1949

Reich Wilheim : L’analyse caractérielle, Payot, 1972 .

Robert-Ouvray Suzanne.B : Intégration motrice et développement psychique, Desclée de Brouwer, 276 pages, Paris, 1997.

Rosenthal Robert : “The PONS test : Measuring Sensitivity to nonverbal cues” in P; 

Mac Reynolds : Advances in Psychology Assessment, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1977.

Salk (Lee) Vauclair Jacques : Cerveau et Psycho, 4, 2004, pp pp24-25.

Scherer K.R et Wallbott H.G : Evidence for universality and cultural variation of differential émotion response patterning. Jounal of personality and Social psychology, 1994, 66, pp. 310-328.

Schwartz et Coll : “Inhibited and unhinibited infants ” grow up “, adult amygdalar response to novelty”, in Science, Vol 300 , 2003.

Sieratski J.B & B.Woll.B,“Why do mothers cradle babies on their left? ” The Lancet vol 347. P 1746, 1996.

Skinner M et Mullen B : ” Facial assymetry in emotional expression : A meta-analysis of research “. British Journal of psychology, 1991, 30, pp. 113-124.

TINBERGEN, Early childhood autism – an ethological approach, Berlin & Hamburg, Parey, (1972).

Tubbs s.l, Moss s : The non verbal message in human communication, Mc Graw Hill 1994,  Singapour : Tucker D.M , Williamson P.A : “Asymetric neural control systems in human self regulation”, Psychological review, 91, pp. 185-215.

Vertischel Patrick : La main du diable, Cerveau et psycho 6, pp.68-72.

Watzlawick, Paul: Pragmatics of Human Communication (Don Jackson / Janet Beavin)

Zoccolotti P., Scabini D., Violani C., : ” Electrodermal responses in patients with unilateral brain damage “. Journal of clinical Neuropsychology, 4, pp. 143-150

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