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The first time the importance of nonverbal communication is really mentioned was in 1872 by Charles Darwin. ( The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals Ed John Murray, London, 1872.). It emits at the time the assumption of the universality of emotions.

Efron in 1941 (Efron D, Gesture and environment, New York, King Crown, 1941) made the first systematic study of nonverbal. It demonstrates at this time that when a generation migrates, the children of the second generation observe the behavior of the natives, different from those of their parents' nonverbal behaviors.


Ray Birdwhistell in 1950 founded the kinesthetic. This is the first approach that deals fairly systematically micromovements. (Birdwhistell Ray: Kinesics and context, Essays on body concept communication, 1970).


Edward Hall founds proxemics. He works on the various dimensions that separate individuals and show how the crossing of certain bubbles of communication modifies the way we communicate with each other. (Edward Hall: The Hidden Dimension, Ed Seuil, 1972).

At the turn of the 1950s and 1960s, knowledge of non-verbal mechanisms made important steps.


Gregory Bateson is the first founding the theory of “double-blind": how verbal messages and nonverbal messages may contradict each-other, making a bad communication process.

In this movement also participate further Bateson and Milton Erickson describes in a very practical way the importance of the whole movement of subliminal mechanisms in the act of communication.


Paul Watzlawick is also part of this movement:  The Reality of Reality, Paris, Seuil, 1973 shows to what point we cannot ‘not communicate’. All of these researchers work on what is not seen but what we nevertheless observe, and found together the ”The Invisible College".

During the 1970s two very different movements emerge: a movement towards lucrative business and an academic movement.


Albert Mehrabian is the first to translate into figures the non-verbal to that of words. 

These figures are still used as reference in the scientific community .Albert Mehrabian, Nonverbal Communication, Chicago, Zldine-Atherton, 12972. Mehrabian even offers the figures:

- 7% words.

- 38% tone timbre, volume/intonation of the voice.

- 55% is non-verbal


At the same time the American researcher Paul Ekman responds directly to Charles Darwin showing that primary emotions are universal.

He implements a device: the FACS (Facial Action coding system) to describe micro-facial reactions to show how facial features express our emotions. A jump in discoveries about the apprehension of the body and its relationship to the brain in the process of communication will be done in the early 1980s. It is the advanced technology that allows the step including the implementation of the scanner, imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and topography emission tomography (PET).


These findings allow us to understand how emotions are important to read the communication. They also show that emotions are part of reasoning and part of the reason of that structure. 

An epistemological revolution is implemented: the most rational beings are those most affected by their emotions.  Many researchers show in this movement.  Their theories are repeatedly labeled to participate in the movement known as emotional intelligence.  (Daniel Goleman: Emotional Intelligence 1, Robert Laffont, 1997, 481 pages.  Daniel Goleman: Emotional Intelligence 2, Robert Laffont, 2002. 


Quote from this movement born out of understanding neurobiology: 

Antonio Damasio (The error of Descartes', Ed Odile Jacob, 1995, 396 pages.). 

From what he observes in the lesion of the prefrontal lobe, it shows that a being who does not prioritize the information when he does not feel, can not really make rational decisions. 


Joseph LeDoux demonstrates the importance of the amygdala (limbic system) for quick decision making. It shows how in certain circumstances, the amygdala may be faster than the neocortex rational decisions. It shows no say whatsoever and without its main object of study, the importance of subliminal phenomena in the communication process.


Dominant paradigms:

The universality of the human race and thus of its nonverbal communication.

1.  Unconscious and subliminal level cultural differences are more noticeable.

2.  Men and women do not communicate fundamentally differently.

An existing debate seems to run today for researchers on nonverbal communication: This is the debate between the proponents of cultural gestures to those of universal gestures.

It is obvious that conscious cultural codes involved in the communication process, but this communication is only surface communication. At a deeper level desire affects the brain by the same rules for men and women. In the process of communication the traces left on the faces and bodies of human beings translates active communication and received emotion.


By observing the micro-movements of the face and body, we give ourselves the means to understand what is happening in the brain. But rather take an example to better understand why the envisaged mechanisms appear as a universal form:

If a fire arises behind you and you need to save yourself to escape, you will first have your brain sends blood to your legs in order to run. Whether you are European, American, Papuan New Guinea or Balinese, the same mechanism is at work.


The human race operates on the same neurophysiological rules. 

The central nervous system gives orders to the body so that it reacts and active the legs. If you deny the desire to go away while the brain already sent the blood onto your legs in order to go, the calf of your leg will "sting" and itches you for a few short seconds, wherever you came from or who you are.


The unconscious translation of desires is universal because it is unique to the human race; to one human race which sees the activities of his body managed by the two hemispheres of the brain, regardless of the continents where men and women live. Wherever the brain is 

given the task to activate body areas from the central nervous system, it follows the same rules and the same principles. These rules and principles are universal. Besides, if we consider a bit, we understand very quickly that true communication has nothing to do with culture. Some things affect us even before we talk: we do not know who they are, where they come from and their cultural universe may even be poles apart from ours, their referents or language different from ours. Yet when they look at us or try to talk to us, they affect us without us being capable to say why. In fact, unconsciously,  these beings send us by their attitudes universal messages that we receive and unconsciously respond to in return. Our face and body are the tools of this rapprochement.


Men, women and the non-verbal communication relation.

Specific gestures are often more clearly identified in women than in men. In fact in these actions there is no physiological reason to be more specific to women than to men. But in men's attitude a willingness not to give up is present and not see the other as he is, which makes that the psyche of the male excludes a number of mental and -by extension- physical attitudes.


Thus, our mental attitude helps us to shape our body, and our body models our mental attitude, like we "dig" in the body language of our community (parents, brothers, sisters, friends ...) since we all end up marrying the attitudes of our community and our own behavioral expressions. 

This is also the first discovery of non-verbal communication, even before the word appeared. It is due to Efron. He showed how plenty of gestures stayed alive in Jewish-Italian neighborhoods -in the heart of the United States in the Italian culture,and were not lost.

Italian Jews living in America in the 1940s did not yet marry the specificity of American gestures. He thus established one of the first evidences that -very young- we take the models of gestures of our very close ones and print them for life. Cf Efron D: Gesture and environment, New York, King Crown, 1941.


A number of discoveries help us to understand how the difference between the brains of men and women does not enough explain differences in their communication. Some examples:

• Regarding the size of the corpus callosum -often said to be different-; opponents of the theory of gender do not see these differences. (See Bishop KM e D Walhstern, Neuroscience and behavioral Reviews, 21, 581, 1997).

• With regard to the quantities of differences of neurons, while some studies note tiny differences, other studies do not see these. (B Pakkenbergb EH.Gundersen, J.Com, Neurol, 384 312 199)

• There is also talk about men are better in maths skills that would result from further development of the right hemisphere. Experiments using MRI indicate the exact opposite. Areas most appearing to be most activated are the left frontal cortex and the left and right parietal areas. (Research, November 2002, Catherine Vidal) and regardless of sex (S Dehaene, and Al, Science, 184,970,1999)


Similarly regarding differences between men and women are serious arguments against the innate differences between men and women.

o These differences are not detectable until adolescence (Catherine Vidal, op cit)

o They are much more pronounced among white Americans than any other ethnic community

o Compilation of tests showed a progressive reduction of the differences in performance between the sexes since women entered social and professional life. (Feingold, Américan Psychologist, 43, 95, 1998)


Catherine Vidal "Quand l'idéologie envahit la science du cerveau"

La recherche, Hors série, Janv 2002.

Sylvie Steinberg " Représenter la différence des sexes : le tournant des lumières "

Esprit, Avril 2001.

Numéro spécial La Recherche : " Sexes : comment devient-on homme ou femme ?"

Janv 2002. 


General works

Bateson Grégory, Pour une Ecologie de l’esprit,  Coll Seuil, Paris, 2 tomes, 1977.  The first to really understand what was going on behind simple crossing legs and to suggest that they were not all negative, (far away for that !!!!)


Darwin Charles : The expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals . Ed John Murray , Londres , 1872 .  In particular, he shows that emotions activate the same areas of the brain and trigger the same reactions, whatever part of the world where they are observed..


Gardner Howard, Multiple Intelligences. To change the school: taking into account the different forms of intelligence, 1993 Trad Retz 1996 Published in 1983 in the United States as the Frame of minds (translation 1997) !!! . He refutes the thesis to a favorable factor unique intelligence. These intelligences are: linguistic intelligence, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intra-personal.


Hall Edward : La dimension cachée, Ed le Seuil, 1972.

Edward Hall is the first to have worked very specifically on communication distances. He even coined the term proxemics to define his method of reading. There are four main distances: 1 public, 2: social distance, 3: intimate, 4:personal.


Johnson  Mark, The body in the mind ,Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1987, 233 p.

Johnson wants to consider the ways in which the body structures of our experience, our body movements, object manipulation, involve recurring patterns without which our experience would be chaotic and unintelligible. He speaks of diagrams images, having the first structure of an image, and emerge as structured gestalts of our experience. Metaphorical projection on more abstract domains of our experience enables understanding. This is probably very important to understand the structure of where on the body the micro-scratching (microdémangeaisons) occur.


Lakoff George & Johnson Mark : Metaphors in everyday life [Les métaphores dans la vie quotidienne (Traduit de l'anglais par Michel de Fornel, en collaboration avec Jean-Jacques Lecercle)Les Éditions de Minuit (Propositions), 1985. Édition originale, The University of Chicago, 1980. For authors our language in its most everyday use is crossed by the metaphor. We use metaphors to describe experiences that we could also define the following terms that correspond to them, but, more radically, and without metaphor we could not talk about our most fundamental experiences. A true proposition is not a proposal that reflects reality as it is in itself, but a proposal that matches the reality as we understand it. Or, as understood through metaphors, we can say, in a way, that reality is structured by our metaphorical system.


Mehrabian Albert : Nonverbal communication, Chicago, Aldine-Atherton , 1972.

Albert Mehrabian showed that the content of the words is only 7% of communication! Alongside the words 38% of communication is attributed to the vocal expression (tone, timbre, 

tone of voice), and 55% of non-verbal communication. He was the first to translate into figures the proportion of non-verbal cues from that word of 1972, its numbers always refer to the scientific community.


Axelrod Robert  : “ The emergence of Cooperation among Egoists ”, American Political Review, 75, 1981, pp. 306-318 

In communication computer modeling made from many real situations, shows that the most      

successful strategy to maximize gains is always the same. 1 In all cases, regardless of who this  

unknown (e), our first gesture should always be an opening gesture, a sign to show our desire to  

cooperate. 2 The next step is to act exactly like the other just react to us (positive if it was positive, 

negative if it is negative), to make him understand that "make weight "facing him. This strategy can effectively reduce the other to cooperate, if he decided not to indulge them. This strategy works best as possible winnings. It seems that this model is most effective. It is known today as the theorem Axelrod is the attitude called "cooperative behavior". 


Schutzenberger Anne-Ancelin :  In the 1970s a number of authors have indeed modeled the attitude of "winning", that is actually dominant, those whose social life appeared as a full success. They developed what is now called the criteria of "excellence." Many in nonverbal communication characteristics of the dominant ones are identified and described in the doctoral thesis of Anne Ancelin Schutzenberger. 


Robert-Ouvray Suzanne.B : motor integration and psychic development, Desclée Brouwer, 276 pages, Paris, 1997. 

At birth the child's wrists are not open, they take the focus of their more closed against their chest. Turned on them for six months, they take the various objects that are sent to them. Then at that age, suddenly they begin to throw things. At six months, the children do not abandon for lack of attention, they decide to part, they are ready to open. They see that there is outside, the Other different from oneself. This attitude of awareness of another reality that his own reality appears in children in strategies in which it gets rid of the objects. 

o Self-awareness across her face is captured from the test of the task. When doing a job on the forehead of a child and that he be placed in front of the mirror, he is not interested in it for two years. It is therefore not aware before that age that his face is really his.

Scientific research on body language (to be completed)

  • Barrier, Guy
  • Cosnier, J. (1977) Communication non verbale et language, Psychologie médicale, 19 pp.2033-2049
  • Mehrabian, A.Wiener, M. Decoding of inconsistent communications, Journal of personality and Social Psychology (1967), Vol 6,No.1,109-114
  • Michael T., La symbolique des gestes des mains (hasta ou mudra) selon l'Abhinaya- Darpana,   Paris,   Ed.   Sémaphore,   1985.
  • Winkin,Y (1996). Bidwhistell R., Penser la communication autrement, Recherches en Communication, No.5, pp 211-221.


  • Cassel, J / McNeill, D / McCullough, K.E. (1998). Speech gestures mismatches: evidence for one underlying representation of linguistic and non linguistic information, Pragmatics & Cognition, 6:2, pp.1-25
  • Caso, L / Marricchiolo, F / Bonaiuto, M / Vrij, A / Mann. S, (2006) The inpact of deception and suspicion on different hand movements, Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 30(1),pp.1-19
  • Marricchiolo,F. / Gnisci, A. / Bonaiuto, M / Ficca, V. (2009). Effects of different types of hand gestures in persuative speech on receivers’ evaluations. Language and cognitive process, 24 (2), pp.239-266.
  • Tellier,M / Stam,G. (2010) Découvrir le pouvoir de ses mains: La gestuelle de futurs enseignants de langue, Spécificités et diversité des interactions didactiques: disciplines, finalités, contextes, Lyon, France.
  • Miyamoto,Y / Nisbett, R.E / Masuda,T.(2006) Holistic Versus Analytic Perceptual Affordances, Culture and Physical Environment, 17,2, Science, 17, 113 -119
  • Anger / Elfenbein,H / Ambady,N. (2002) On the Universality and Cultural Specificity of Emotion Recognition: A Meta-Analysis, American Psychological Association, Inc, Vol.128,No:2, pp.209-235.
  • Mrowa-Hopkins,C / Strambi,A. La dimension émotionnelle de la communication en situation interculturelle: L’expression non verbale de la colère chez des locuteurs anglo-australiens, français et italiens. Les Cahiers de l’Actuelle, No 3, 2008, pp: 89 – 110.
  • Gosselin,P. Le décodage de l’expression faciale des émotions au cours de l’enfance, Canadian Psychology (2005), 46:3, pp: 126 – 138

Specifics and items:

  • Bar,M / Neta,N / Linz,H Very First Impressions, Emotion (2006), Vol.6 No:2, pp:269-278.
  • Nummenmaa,L / Calvo, M.G. (2009) Emotional Scene Content Drives the Saccade Generation System Reflexively, Journal of experimental Psychology, Vol.35, No:2, pp:305-323.
  • Hunt, A.R. Cooper, R.M. Hungr, C.Kingstone, (2007) The effect of emotional faces on eye movements and attention, Visual cognition, 15, 5 513-531.
  • S.Leal and A.Vrij (2008) Blinking during and after lying, Nonverbal Behavior 32: 187-194.
  • Elfenbein,H.A. / Mandal, K.M. / Ambady,N. / Harikuza,K. / Surender,K.C. (2004) Hemifacial differences in the in-group advantage in emotion recognition, cognition and emotion, 18, 5, pp: 613-629.
  • Ekman, P. / Davidson, R.J. / Friesen, W.V. (1990) The Duchenne Smile: Emotional Expression and Brain Physiology II, Vol.58, No:2, pp: 342-353.




Lhotellier, A. and St.Arnaud, Y. (1994) Pour une démarche praxéologique, Nouvelles pratiques sociales, Vol.7,No:2, pp:93 – 109.

The Bodysystemics method by Rahah & Yacine Aiouaz, C = f(P,E) :  C = behaviorf = functionP = person , E = environment



  • Sporer,S / Schwandt,B. (2007) Moderators of nonverbal indicators of deception, A meta-analytical Synthesis, Vol 13, No 1, pp: 1-34.
  • De Paulo, B.M. Lindsay, J.J. Malone, B.E.Muhlenbruck, Charlton. K. Cooper.H, (2003), Cues to Deception, Psychological Bulletin, Vol 129, No:1, pp: 74 -118.
  • Bond, C.F / Uysal,A.  On Lie detection “Wizards (2007), Law and Human Behavior, Vol 31, No:1 pp: 109-116.
  • Warren,G. / Schertler,E / Bull, P. (2009) Detecting Deception from Emotional and Unemotional Cues in Nonverbal Behavior 33:59 69

The list under shows in detail the non-verbal communication observed by its author(s)

  • Bateson, Gregory, Pour une Ecologie de l’esprit, Coll Seuil, Paris, 2 tomes, 1977.  From the school of Palo Alto, the first to really introduce a systematical dimension in a non-verbal communication-system. He seems to be the first in observing crossed legs are not always negative. He introduces the ‘double-bind’ theory (contradiction in verbal and non-verbal language).
  • Bekdache K : L’organisation verbo-viscero-motrice au cours de la commnunication verbale selon la structure spatiale ou proxémique, Thesis-Lyon 2. Shows we hardly make gestures when we phone. Gestures 'must' have other meaning rather than illustrating thoughts…
  • Birdwhistell Ray: Kinesics and context : essays on body motion communication, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1970. 
  • Ray Birdwhistell excells in analyses of micro-mouvements in communication , and calls them kinesie. First work appears in 1950.
  • Borod J.C : ” Interhemispheric and intrahemispheric control of emotion : a focus on unilateral brain damage ” , Journal of Consulting and Clinical psychology 60, 1992. He shows how much emotions do not interfere with two sides of the face. Inconscient control is responsible for the stressed right-half of the face.
  • Buser Pierre : Cerveau de soi, cerveau de l’autre, Ed Odile Jacob, 1998, 432 pages. (P.291) Pierre Buser examines the emotional expression of the face in general . He is overclear in his research that emotional expression is seen on the left half of the face (the right hemisphere) rather than the right half of the face.
  • Calbris Genevieve : L’expression gestuelle de la pensee d’un homme politique. Genevieve Calbris, CNRS Editions, 2003, 205 pages. Through study and observing the non verbal langage of Lionel Jospin she shows that gestures are not illustrating words or thoughts but gestures create thoughts to evolve even before the formation of new ideas. 
  • Chateau (de) Peter shows in 1983 that left-handed mothers carry their baby also on their left arm. /Cf in Vauclair Jacques Cerveau et Psycho,4, 2004, pp 24-25.
  • Crigley Hugo D , Dolan Raymond et Christophe .J : ” neural activity relating to generation and representation of galvanic skin conductance responses : a functional magnetic resonance imaging study”, Journal of neuroscience 20, 2000, pp.3030-3040. They show that the cortex somato sensoriels de l’insula et de SII are involved in producing microdemangeaisons. 
  • Darwin Charles : The expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals . Ed John Murray, Londres, 1872 . Explains in the 19th century that emotions activate the same zones in the brain and trigger the same reactions universally wherever observed.
  • Cacioppo J.T, Petty R .E, Tassinary L.G : Social psychophysiology : A new look. Advances inExperimental Social Psychology, 22, pp 39-91. These authors show how good communicators are contagious, and are able to transmit their emotions to even silent and/or introvert persons.
  • Cook M et Smith J.M.C : The role of gaze in impression formation, British Society, Clinical psychology, 14, 1975 pp.19-25. In ten seconds only, even while we think we fix our eyes in the eyes of the other, our eyes ‘see’ about twenty points of the face of the other person.
  • Coudon Dr Olivier : Les rythmes du corps, Edition du Nil, 1997, 260 pages. Il explique que les enfants possedent un mecanisme de regulation cardiaque , qu’il mettent en ouvre grace a des mouvements comme le balancement de jambe par exemple. Les enfants balancent souvent leurs jambes plus inconsciemment du monde pour se calmer, etre moins anxieux et davantage a l’ecoute . Ils regulent alors ce que les specialistes ce que les specialistes appellent les rythmes ultradiens de haute frequence.
  • Damasio Antonio.R : L’erreur de Descartes, Ed Odile Jacod, 1995, 396 p. Antonio Damasio shows how simulated emotions do not interfere with the two sides of the face, in particularly because of a control in the left hemisphere (stays in place), while spontaneous emotions trigger both halfs of the face to open-up together.
  • Damasio Antonio, Gabowski Thomas J, Bechaa Antoine, Damasio Hanna, Ponto, Laura L.B, Parvisi Josf et Richard D : « Subcortical and cortical brain activity during the feeling of self generated emotions, Nature Neuroscience, 3, 2000,pp.1049-1056.  These reseachers show that changes on the skin come before the ‘sensation’ , also a ‘feeling’ called. This phenomenon is important when we want to understand where micro-itches come from.
  • Davidson Richard, Ekman Paul, Senulius S, Friesen W : Emotional Expression and brain physiology I : Approach /withdrawal and cerebral Asymetry », Journal of personality and Social psychology. 58, 1990. The authors show how we produce physiological changes in correspondental emotions when we adapt a given expression. VB: Smiling triggers a neurophisiological activity in the brain of 'feel good'.
  • Dimberg : Ulf : Facial electromyography and emotional reactions. Psychophysiology, 27, 1990, pp. 481-494. When we face somebody, we inconsciously ‘marry’ the other by ‘reading’ the characteristics of the others’face in order to understand what the other ‘feels’. This empathic mechanism is completely inconscious. This hypothesis is discovered and proven by the swedish research Ulf Dimberg.  He placed sensors on the face of a person in front of another person, in order to measure the exact same emotions as noticed on the face of the person in front. We ‘mirror’ facial muscular mime, even though invisible in normal circumstances.
  • Eibl Eibesfeldt Irenaüss : L’homme programmé, Trad, Flammarion, 1976 , 256 pages.  He discovered that human, men and women, while exanging a first contact, highten their eyebrows at first and proves it to be a universal inconscious reflex.
  • Ekman Paul, O’Sullivan M, Frank M.G , « A few Can Catch A liar”, Psychological Science, 10, 1999, pp. 263-266. While observing voice and face, we are able to read lies. It is enough to look and listen to know. One percent of the human population however is capable to hide a lie while we do not understand what is so particular about these persons.
  • Ekman et Friesen : Ekman P. ,  Friesen W. : Hand movements, Journal of Communication, 22, pp. 353-374. Gestures, auto-concentrated on the body (micro-fixations) allow us to draw the attention of our interlocutor. 
  • Ekman, P. and Friesen, W. : “Detecting deception fom the body or face”, Journal of personality and Social Psychology , 29, pp. 288-298. Ekman and Friesen show how uncincere people bow the head systematically when confronted by others. (It is a pity he only focuses on the body but ignores the importance of the cerebral hemispheres and dissemetrical differences in the face).
  • Ekman Paul and Friesen, W. “Nonverbal leakage and cues to deception”, Psychiatry , 32, 1969, pp. 88-105.  Ekman and Friesen show when words and gestures are in contradiction, we choose to believe the gestures rather than the words.
  • Exline R.V : Visual interaction : The glances of power and preference, in J Cole : Symposium of motivation, 1971, Lincoln, University of nebaska Press, PP. 163-206. If we look at ourselves 60% of the time, an autist will not give us more than 4% of a glimpse. Human opposite eachother having interest in one-another look eachother more often and longer.  The fact to be seen by the other gives a person the feeling to be appreciated.
  • Feyereisen Pierre: Le cerveau et la communication, Coll ” Psychologie d’aujourd’hui “, P.U.F, 1994, 213 pages.
  • Freedman N, et Steingart J : “Kinesic intenalization and language construction” in Spence DB : Psychoanalysis and contempory science, Vol IV, 1975, New York, University Press, pp. 355-403.
  • Frey, Siegfried, Hirsbrunner Hans-Peter, Florin Anne-Marie, Daw Walid, and Crawfod : ” Analyse intégrée du comportement non verbal et verbal dans le domaine de la Communication ” in La Communication non verbale.  J Cosnier et A Brossard, Delachaux et Niestlé,1992, Neuchâtel , 244 pages.
  • Gardner Howard, Les intelligences multiples : la prise en compte des différentes formes d’intelligence, Trad Retz 1996.
  • Goffman, Erving : Face-to-face interaction, the mutual influence of individuals’ direct physical presence & body language
  • Hall Edward : La dimension cachée, Ed le Seuil, 1972.Hattfield E, Costello J, Weisman MS, Denney C : “The impact of vocal Feedback on emotional experience and expression”, Journal of social behavior and personality, 10, 1995, 293-312.
  • Heilman K.M et Watson R.T : ” Arousal and emotions ” in F Boller et Grafman J : Handbook of neuropsychology , 1983 , Vol 3 pp; 403-417, Amsterdam, Elsevier.
  • Hess E.H, : ” Attitude and pupill size” Scientific Américan, 1965, 212, pp.46-54.
  • Johnson Mark, Kimura D. : ” The neural basis of gesture “, In H. Whitaker et H.A Whitaker : Studies in neurolinguistics, 1976 , Vol 2 (pp. 145-156).
  • Kimura D et Humphrys C.A : “A comparison of left and right arm movement during speaking”, Neuropsychologia, 19, 1981, pp.807-812. 
  • Kraut E, Poe Donald : The deception judgement of Custom Inspectors and Laymen , Journal of personnality and social psychology, 39, 1980, pp 784-798.
  • Lakoff George & Johnson Mark : Les métaphores dans la vie quotidienne (Traduit de l’anglais par Michel de Fornel, en collaboration avec Jean-Jacques Lecercle)Les Éditions de Minuit (Propositions), 1985. Édition originale, The University of Chicago, 1980.
  • LeDoux Joseph : ” Emotional memory system in the brain “, Behavioral and brain research 58, 1993.
  • Mc Neill D : “So you think gestures are nonverbal ?” Psychological review, 92, 1986, pp. 350-371.
  • Manning John et Andrew Chamberlain    Jacques Vauclair, Cerveau et Psycho,4, 2004, pp 24-25.
  • Mehrabian Albert :Nonverbal communication, Chicago, Aldine-Atherton , 1972. 
  •  Montagner, Hubert: L’enfant et la communication, 1978, 418 pages (p.95) 
  • Moscovici S , Plon M : Les situations : observations theoriques et experimentales, Bulletin de psychologie, 1966, 19 , pp ; 702-722
  • Morow L, Urtunski B, Kim Y, Boller F :“Arousal responses to emotional stimuli and laterality of lesion” , Neuropsychologia1981, 19, 65-71
  • Murphy S.T, Zajonc R.B : “Affect, cognition and awareness : Affecting priming with optimal and suboptimal stimulus exposures”. Journal of personality and Social psychology, 64, 723-739.
  • Rachael E Jack, investigates the psychological underpinnings of social interaction, examining the influence of knowledge and concepts (i.e., culture) on visual and categorical perception, particularly the processing of social signals such as facial expressions of emotion.
  • Reich Wilhelm : Character analysis, New York , Orgone Institute Press, 1949
  • Reich Wilheim : L’analyse caractérielle, Payot, 1972 .
  • Robert-Ouvray Suzanne.B : Intégration motrice et développement psychique, Desclée de Brouwer, 276 pages, Paris, 1997.
  • Rosenthal Robert : “The PONS test : Measuring Sensitivity to nonverbal cues” in P; 
  • Mac Reynolds : Advances in Psychology Assessment, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1977.
  • Salk (Lee) Vauclair Jacques : Cerveau et Psycho, 4, 2004, pp pp24-25.
  • Scherer K.R et Wallbott H.G : Evidence for universality and cultural variation of differential émotion response patterning. Jounal of personality and Social psychology, 1994, 66, pp. 310-328.
  • Schwartz et Coll : “Inhibited and unhinibited infants ” grow up “, adult amygdalar response to novelty”, in Science, Vol 300 , 2003.
  • Sieratski J.B & B.Woll.B,“Why do mothers cradle babies on their left? ” The Lancet vol 347. P 1746, 1996.
  • Skinner M et Mullen B : ” Facial assymetry in emotional expression : A meta-analysis of research “. British Journal of psychology, 1991, 30, pp. 113-124.
  • Tinbergen, Early childhood autism – an ethological approach, Berlin & Hamburg, Parey, (1972).
  • Tubbs s.l, Moss s : The non verbal message in human communication, Mc Graw Hill 1994,  Singapour : Tucker D.M , Williamson P.A : “Asymetric neural control systems in human self regulation”, Psychological review, 91, pp. 185-215.
  • Turchet,P: the secrets of body language.
  • Vertischel Patrick : La main du diable, Cerveau et psycho 6, pp.68-72.
  • Watzlawick, Paul: Pragmatics of Human Communication (Don Jackson / Janet Beavin)
  • Zoccolotti P., Scabini D., Violani C: ” Electrodermal responses in patients with unilateral brain damage “.  Journal of clinical Neuropsychology, 4, pp. 143-150

Additional - Primary emotions & psychological literature:

  • Arnold: anger, aversion, courage, desire, despair, fear, hatred, hope, love, sadness, relationship with trends of action
  • Frijda: desire, happiness, interest, surprise, wonder, pain.
  • Gray: fury and terror, anxiety, joy.
  • Izard: Interest, joy, surprise, sadness (distress, anxiety), anger, disgust, contempt, fear, guilt, shame, shyness, hostility toward oneself.
  • James: fear, grief, love, anger.
  • McDougall: irritation, disgust, excitement, fear, submission, emotion & tenderness in wonderful relationships based on instinct
  • Ekman: joy, disgust, sadness, anger, fear, surprise.
  • Oatley and Johnson-Laird: irritation, disgust, anxiety, happiness, sadness
  • Panksepp: expectation, fear, rage, panic.
  • Plutchik: acceptance, anger, anticipation, disgust, joy, fear, sadness, surprise.
  • Tomkins: anger, interest, contempt, disgust, distress, fear, joy, shame, surprise.
  • Watson: fear, love, overwhelming rage.
  • Airaksinen, M. S. e. a. (1991). “Histamine neurons in human hypothalamus: anatomy in normal and Alzheimer diseased brains.” neuroscience 44: 465 -481.
  • Bloedel, J. R. (1992). Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15: 4.
  • Bogen, J. E. and H. W. Gordon (1977). “Musical Tests of Functional Lateralization With intracarotid Amobarbital.” Nature 230: 524 -525.
  • Brodmann, K. (1909). Vergleichende Lokalisationslehre der Grosshirnrinde. Muenich, Barth.
  • Gazzaniga, M. S. (1998). The Mind's Past. Berkely and Los Angeles, University of California Press.
  • Haas, H. and P. Pertti (2003). “The role of histamine and the tuberomamillary nucleus in the nervous system.” Nat. Rev. Neurosci 4: 121 - 130.
  • Hubel, D. H. (1988). Eye, brain and vision. New York, Oxford, W. H. Freeman and Company.
  • Kaas, J. H., R. J. Nelson, et al. (1979). “Multiple representations of the body within the primary somatosensory cortex of primates.” Science 204: 521 -523.
  • Kimura, D. and Y. Archibald (1974). “Motor Functions of the Left Hemisphere.” Brain 97: 337 -350.
  • Kotter, R. and N. Meyer (1992). “The limbic system: a review of its empirical foundation.” Behavioural Brain Research 52: 105-127.
  • Llinas, R., E. J. Lang, et al. (1997). Learning and Memory 3: 445. 
  • Modigliani A., Embarrassment, face work and eye contact : testing a theory of embarrassment. Journal of Personality and social Psychology,  1971, 17  15-24.
  • Modigliani A., Embarrassment, face work and eye contact : testing a theory of  embarrassment. Journal of Personality and social Psychology,  1971, 17  15-24.
  • Moscovici  S.,  Introduction à la psychologie sociale,  Paris,  Larousse,  1972,  2 vol. Moscovici  S.,  Psychologie  sociale,  Paris,  PUF,  1984.
  • Nauta, W. J. H. and H. J. Karten, Eds. (1970). A general profile of the vertebrate brain, with sidelights on the ancestry of cerebral cortex. The Neuroscience: Second study program, Rockefeller University Press.
  • Northcutt, R. G. and J. H. Kaas (1995). “The emergence and evolution of mammalian neocortex.” Trends in Neuroscience 18: 373-379.
  • Paris J., L'espace et le regard, Paris,  Seuil,  1966.
  • Parmentier, R. and al. (2002). “Anatomical, physiological and pharmacological characteristics of histidine decarboxylase knock-out mice; evidence for the role of brain histamine in behavioral and wake-sleep control.” J. Neurosci. 22: 7695-7711.
  • Passani, M. B., L. Bacciottini, et al. (2000). “Central histaminergic system and cognition.” Neurosci. Biobeh. Rev. 24:107-113.
  • Posner, M. I. and M. E. Raichle (1994). Images of Mind. New York, Scientific American Library (HPHLP).
  • Polli,  Essai  de physiognomonie  et  de  pathognomonie,  Milano,  Arto,  1837.
  • Rachline M., Les secrets des visages, Paris, Nathan, 1986.
  • Rosenthal R., Experimenters effects in behavioral Research, New York, Appleton Century  Crofts,  1966. 
  • Ross L., The intuitive psychologist and his shortcomings, in  L. Berkowitz (edit.), Advances  in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 10, New  York, Academic Press, 1977.
  • Schachter S., Cognition and peripheralist-centralist controversies in motivation and emotion,  in  Gazzaniga  M. S.,  Blakemore C. (edit.), Handbook  of Psychobiology, New York et Londres,  Academic  Press, 1975 (529-564). 
  • Schachter  S.,   Singer  J.   E.,  Cognitive,  social  and  psychological  determenents of emotional state, Psychol. Rev.,  1962, 69, 379-391.
  • Studdert-Kennedy, M. and D. Shankweiler (1970). “Hemispheric Specialization for Speech Perception.” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 48: 579 -594. 
  • Thiefry S., La main de l'homme,  Paris, Hachette,  1973.
  • Watzlawick  P.,  La réalité de la réalité,  Paris,  Seuil,  1978.  & Le langage du changement,  Paris,  Seuil,  1980. 
  • Watzlawick  P.,  Weakland J.  H.,  Fisch  R.,  Changements  : paradoxes et psycho- thérapie,  Paris,  Seuil,  1975. 
  • Watzlawick  P.,  Weakland J.  H., Sur l'interaction,  Paris,  Seuil,  1981.
  • Watzlawick P.,  Helmick-Beavin J., Jackson D., Une logique de la communication, Paris,  Seuil,  1972. 
  • Weitz S., Non verbal Communication, Readings,  New York, Oxford  Univ.  Press, 1979.
  • Westerink, B. H. e. a. (2002). “Evidence for activation of histamine H3 autoreceptors during handling stress in the prefrontal cortex of the rat.” Synapse 43: 238 - 243.
  • Wickelgren, I. (1998). “The Cerebellum: The Brain's Engine of Agility.” Science 281: 1588-90.
  • Yerkes, R. M. and J. D. Dodson (1908). “The relation of strength of stimulus of stimulus to rapidity of habitformation.” J. Comp. Neurol. Psychol. 18: 459 -482.

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